There are refusals, and then there are refusals, and a “likelihood of confusion” refusal (also called a “Section 2(d)” refusal in the US) is certainly of the latter variety. But most times you don’t need to be an expert navigator to traverse these choppy waters and successfully sail your application through to registration. All it takes is a little bit of “pathfinding” (investigating) on your part, and “charting a course” (developing a strategic approach) for moving forward.
And then I ran out of explorer metaphors.
As consolation, here are some thoughts about how to approach and respond to these kinds of refusals, which are among the most daunting. Some, but not all, of the tips below apply equally to “likelihood of confusion” refusals encountered in the USA and in trademark offices abroad.